Date: 26 Jan 2018
Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies, includingWest syndrome (WS), are a group of neurological disorders characterized by developmental impairments and intractable seizures from early infancy. We have now identified biallelic CNPY3 variants in three individuals with WS; these include compound-heterozygous missense and frameshift variants in a family with two affected siblings (individuals 1 and 2) and a homozygous splicing variant in a consanguineous family (individual 3). All three individuals showed hippocampal malrotation.
In individuals 1 and 2, electroencephalography (EEG) revealed characteristic fast waves and diffuse sharp- and slow-wave complexes.
The fast waves were clinically associated with seizures. CNPY3 encodes a co-chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and regulates the subcellular distribution and responses of multiple Toll-like receptors. The amount of CNPY3 in lymphoblastoid cells derived from individuals 1 and 2 was severely lower than that in control cells. Cnpy3-knockout mice exhibited spastic or dystonic features under resting conditions and hyperactivity and anxiolytic behavior during the open field test. Also, their resting EEG showed enhanced activity in the fast beta frequency band (20–35 Hz), which could mimic the fast waves in individuals 1 and 2. These data suggest that CNPY3 and Cnpy3 perform essential roles in brain function in addition to known Toll-like receptor-dependent immune responses.
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Department of Human Genetics,
Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine
Fukuura 3-9, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004 JAPAN